Thursday, October 15, 2015

Slow-Mo Learning is Faster

Whether it is trying to fix the faucet or a broken heart, important decisions make or break significant relationships each day. Problem solving skills are therefore of paramount importance whether one is a handyman, a father, a CEO, or the President of the the United States.

It is not any different for organizations experiencing problems. Personnel are required and expected to think on their toes and come up with solutions on the fly. Their troubleshooting mettle will be tested and imagination is stretched to its limits to come up with that ingenious idea to resolve the nagging problem currently experienced. The good news is, troubleshooting skills can be acquired and if you already have them, these can be improved.

In this tip we will talk about troubleshooting and how important it is in the organizational setting.

Diagnostics: Identifying the Problem 

Troubleshooting starts with diagnostics. Before a problem can be solved, it must first be identified. In the words of MIT professors Randall Davis and Walter Hamscher, "To determine why something has stopped working, it's useful to know how it was supposed to work in the first place." In the organizational setting, the question may be asked: is there a gap between current and desired performance? Identify your goals. What are the barriers towards accomplishing your goals?

So what is a Diagnostic? According to Harrison Dia in his book Diagnosis: Approaches and Methods, "In organizational diagnosis, consultants, researchers, or managers use conceptual models and applied research methods to assess an organization's current state and discover ways to solve problems, meet challenges, or enhance performance... hence, diagnosis can contribute to managerial decision making, just as it can provide a solid foundation for recommendations by organizational and management consultants."

One area of study is how well people estimate or predict between defined problems and anticipated solutions. This is affected by the accuracy of both the diagnosis of the problem and the solutions and the discrepancy between observations and predictions.

Power of Observation and Predictions in Learning

Learning has a lot to do with troubleshooting and problem solving. What drives this is the process of observation and predictions. According to  Davis and Hamscher, "Observation indicates what the device is actually doing, prediction what it's supposed to do. The interesting event is any difference between the two, a difference is termed a discrepancy."  When we see a problem we make observations on causes and related aspects of the problems; we also make predictions on how the problems can be fixed with some of our solutions. The discrepancy happens when our observations are far from our solutions.

SLOW-MO Learning - How to Do Better than Just Trial and Error Learning

Our daily lives and activities are made up of constant troubleshooting and problem solving. From tying our shoelaces to driving out of the garage door, there is a constant estimation process.

Similarly at work, we encounter daily troubleshooting and problem solving, from simple tasks of fixing a mail-merge formula in MS Office to investigating why the scrap level is so high in a particular batch.

What is interesting is that, to learn from this experience, it is worth understanding what I call the SLOW-MO Learning. To get things done, there is a cycle of problem - observation - prediction - discrepancy - back to the problem. The cycle continues until a solution is reached.

Although this happens in milliseconds, slowing down the mental process to extend thinking time may achieve more fruitful results.This is what I would term as SLOW-MO (slow motion learning approach).

In rapid motion, learners may overlook an effective diagnostic and troubleshooting process. There is no thinking through because workers merely follow the cause and effect method by trial and error. This often happens when we expect learners to memorize content rather than think and apply the content in real-life situations.

To improve the results of trial and error, there is the "Model of Reasoning" and for conversation here -- it is the SLOW-MO Learning . This involves slowing down in our mind, the flow of diagnosis and problem solving so we can discover the "discrepancy between our observation and predictions."  As the process decelerates, we take the time to add " reasoning" to our thinking. By pausing to ruminate, we "think through"  using "reasoning models" like the following: 

Fault models - set of things that can go wrong
Rule based - rules that guide how things work
Decision tree - scenarios or "What ifs"

Applying the reasoning models to troubleshooting and problem solving increases the chances of a successful solution.

This is an illustration for SLOW-MO Learning - you break down things so one clearly sees theflow. Then ask reasoning questions to better think through the troubleshooting situation.

There are many other "reasoning models" that can be employed. What is crucial is the ability to train and encourage our learners to take a SLOW-MO learning approach.  Guide them to train their minds to think through a troubleshooting or problem-solving situation and apply some "reasoning" to arrive at better solutions.

SLOW-MO Learning is the difference between trial and error and productive work.

In many work situations, many of the workers may not have access to knowledge and experience, tools and immediate solutions. They increase their chances of success when they add "reasoning" to how they approach problems and reach solutions.


Exploring Artificial Intelligence: Survey Talks from the National Conferences on Artificial Intelligence. Edited by Howard E. Shrobe. Model Based Reasoning: Troubleshooting. Chapter 8. Randall Davis and Walter Hamscher, MIT:  

Cindy E. Hmelo-Silver. Problem-Based Learning: What and How Do Students Learn? Educational Psychology Review. Sept. 2004, Vol. 16, Issue 3, pp. 235-266.   

David Jonassen, Johannes Strobel and Chwee Beng Lee. Everyday Problem Solving in Engineering:Lessons for Engineering Educators   

Harrison Dia. Diagnosis: Approaches and Methods.

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Wednesday, October 7, 2015

How to Add Depth to Micro-Ideas

What pushes the popularity of micro, small bites learning or learning by snippets and drips? 

There Is Strong Evidence of a Convergence of Forces

Velocity of business is rapid - Organizations need to train people quickly to push products, support customers, comply with laws and others. In the words of Dr. Minimol Anil Job and Dr. Habil Slade Ogalo in the article "Micro-Learning As Innovative Process of Knowledge Strategy," published in the International Journal of Scientific & Technology Research, "Current technological, economic and social changes trigger the need for new concepts and strategies to support lifelong learning. Education, including work-based learning, is in need of transformation, requiring renewal and  innovative ways of relating appropriately to the way we live, work and learn today." Knowledge needs to be created on the fly and skills relevant to the task need to be acquired.

Away with data dump - Backlash from too much overload in the information type of training rather than quick application learning. In an article I wrote, I shared that big data, huge knowledge sources and voluminous information should not be forced upon the eLearners. Instead of pontificating on large data, eLearning methodology selects only a micro-lesson which can be plucked from the whole knowledge source. The result is that learners are only made to digest the meat of the whole knowledge source, dramatically reducing study time.

Affordable tools - Employees, trainers and team members have grown accustomed to small, quick, enabling tools to improve productivity, for example Evernote, YouTube, DropBox, Basecamp, PDFs, Blogs, etc. - quick tools to enable open ended transfer of knowledge and assisting quick learning. "Technological innovation has made our  society  knowledge intensive, where successful performance of individuals or groups heavily relies on the acquisition and use of relevant information content and suitable means of communication to achieve task objectives," added Job and Ogalo.

Liberated learners - Learners discover they can grab information quickly by using Google, acompany website or other sources. These tools change their behaviors or more appropriately, these tools  magnify what they could not see they have and do without them. In the words of Bryant Nielson, "Access to anywhere, anytime learning has liberated instructors and students from the four-hour seminar and the three-day workshop: they can now make the most of even five spare minutes, which has led to a new interest in micro-learning."

The big elephants are trying to change - As a matter of fact, large organizations are closely following the growth and applications of xAPI - a tracking mechanism that encourages sharing and reporting small bites learning.  As a consequence, vendors for learning systems and authoring tools are singing a different tune - "now it is OK to use informal learning" as a long as we can track them through xAPI - this was unheard of 5 years ago.

Does Content Production Equal Micro-Learning?

However, the word "micro-learning" is bad news just like the phrase "rapid eLearning."


The ideas of most micro-learning today is stuck with just creating content, the same way rapid eLearning has been practiced. There is an emphasis in the PRODUCTION OF CONTENT - and NOT useful applications of content.

Production-oriented micro-learning means we need to chop down content into smaller bits and so it can be consumed in fast and small chew. The problem is, this approach misses out on the point that propels the rising power and importance of micro-learning. 

Proximity to Work Versus Small Content

Focusing on the proximity of work reshapes the role of content. It means that it is the worker who decides what to use and when. Again, as Drs. Job and Ogalo would put it, "Micro-learning  is a pioneering research aimed at exploring new ways of responding to the growing need of lifelong learning or learning on demand of members of the society, such as knowledge workers." The learning context of the user or learner is taken into consideration when designing contents. This has a huge impact on the way we design, deliver and make content available to workers. This suggests that workers use the goals of the tasks and have the ability to find the micro-idea to help them do the work. 

Adding Depth to Micro-Ideas

My first proposal is to consider using micro-ideas rather than learning. Micro-ideas is less hypocritical since making the idea micro does not suggest learning. What we do have are micro-ideas.

Consider these possible approaches:

Question-driven micro-ideas - collect workers', users' and learners' questions. These are questions on the job where they are asked to define "what they want to do." This is a goal statement or outcome of a task. For example:

How do I turn the knob to avoid an explosion?
What happens if I raise the temperature?
What is low risk testing?

These questions resonate with learners because they are life-application questions.
Learners learn best and find the lessons more engaging when they are about real-life applications. We can then build real-life application exercises, not memorization tests.

Solutions driven micro-ideas - questions driven micro-ideas necessitate that the worker looks for a solution, not just content. So content must be quick, instant solutions to issues on the job. Why is this important? Micro-ideas must present swift and timely solutions as priority, rather than theory or principles. If you only have a minute to read a solution since you are trying to get the job done, your instant need is how this can solve my problem and why it will work or not. If you want to know more, then you can study the theory or principles which may be presented in other content format. A useful micro-idea instantly matches to a task.

Experience driven micro-ideas - Content that's useful for workers to get the job done, must present an experience, not just theory and principle. The more relevant the experience, the more useful the micro-idea. 

Instead of saying "This is the step that saves time", you may say "This tip saves 10 hours from turnaround time because it helps you skip the unnecessary step 3." Referring to the real-life value of a solution or workaround offers immediate reason for the value of the micro-idea. 

Build micro-application opportunities - When you look for opportunities to help workers
apply ideas as needed on the job, you refocus your attention on useful micro-ideas, rather than re-purposing content to which we are emotionally committed. For example, designers would say, "let's develop micro-learning leadership listening skills," without asking how learners aregoing to benefit by actually applying the ideas to solve a problem. Maybe the need on the job is to ask, "what blocks my mind when Joe is presenting an idea?" The sentence suggests an application opportunity.


Adding depth to micro-ideas means stretching our minds beyond just creating content. Rather,it is delving and understanding the work situation of the learner. If we start with this framework, we will most likely come up with micro-ideas useful to the learner - not just another chopping and dicing of content.


Gerhard Gassler, Theo Hug and Christian Glahn: "Integrated Micro Learning - An outline of the basic method and first results":   

Dr. Minimol Anil Job, Dr.Habil Slade Ogalo: Micro Learning As Innovative Process of Knowledge Strategy: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY VOL. 1, ISSUE 11, DECEMBER 2012:     

Ray Jimenez: Small Bites Learning - Fast, Cheap, Flexible and Learners Love Them!:   

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Reflections Impact Performance

As an experienced trainer, I have found the immense importance of reflection on my own learning and that of my learners. As I mentioned in the previous tip, reflection deepens one's own learning.  If you want to really learn something, you need to reflect on it. The reason behind this is that reflection helps drill information down and connects it to previous knowledge.

However, the benefits of reflection don't stop there. A growing number of studies actually linked reflection to better performance. As a result, organizations are beginning to appreciate the advantages it offers. Google, for instance, is redefining the idea of the typical office setup to allow for better reflection by its workforce.

In this tip, I will talk about the relationship between reflection and performance. The correlation between the two is real and the results are measurable.

Measurable Effects of Reflection on Performance

Studies consistently affirm the positive effects of reflection on organizational performance. According to Di Stefano and associates, "Results of mediation analyses further show that the improvement in performance observed when individuals are learning by thinking is explained by increased self-efficacy generated by reflection."  The authors conducted a field experiment in a BPO (business process outsourcing) company in India and they found out that "individuals perform significantly better on subsequent tasks when they think about what they learned from the task they completed." The lesson here is simple: learners are more productive when they are allowed to intentionally reflect on what they have learned from previous experience.

In a different study conducted among midwifery students, Embo,, found a "significant relationship between 'reflection ability' and 'clinical performance' scores in clinical practice" and suggested that, "(1) reflection ability is linked to clinical performance; (2) that written reflections are an important, but not the sole way to assess professional competence and that (3) reflection is a contributor to clinical performance improvement."They concluded that reflection is an important component in professional competence.

Reflection as a Strategy to Improve Performance in an Organization

If reflection helps drill down knowledge and skills and plays a key role in improving performance, then organizations should embrace this as a strategy. Micro-ideas are easier to reflect upon due primarily to its small size. This makes it ideal in transferring skill and knowledge in the organization.

For organizations, production is dependent on performance. Even with the advent of technology, much of production is still dependent on the performance of personnel and their understanding of the tools at their disposal. Tools and content are only as powerful as the workers' capacity to think through how to apply and leverage them. Case solving abilities or troubleshooting skills is better with workers who are given time to reflect on newly acquired skills.


Frederik Anseel, Filip Lievens, and Eveline Schollaert. Reflection as a Strategy to Enhance Task Performance after Feedback. Ghent University.   

Di Stefano, G., Gino, F., Pisano, G., & Staats, B. (2014). Learning by  Thinking: How Reflection Aids Performance. Harvard Business SchoolWorking Paper, 1-48.,%20How%20Reflection%20Aids%20Performance.pdf     

Maggie Coats: Reflection revisited: can it really enhance practice? Cambridge 20-23 September 2005:     


Embo M, Driessen E, Valcke M, van der Vleuten CP. Relationship between reflection ability and clinical performance: a cross-sectional and retrospective-longitudinal correlational cohort study in midwifery. PubMed.     

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Why Reflect? The Role of Reflection in the Learning Process

Traveling is a painful process, even when one is having a vacation. I must admit though, that traveling especially at a time when I am less interrupted, like while on the plane or at the airport or just in a restaurant, allows me to reflect. The break from the routine becomes a gift -  a time for reflection. I always look forward to these contemplative moments.    

Why Spend Time Reflecting? 

Here are some of the top reasons why reflection is important:

It deepens awareness of one's learning. In the words of Rachel Ong, "Learning is not just a process of accumulation of information. Instead it is about how the new knowledge that the learner encounters is integrated with his existing schemata of prior knowledge." This is particularly true when reflections provide meaning to the process one is engaged in.

Realize that while you learn a thing or two from experience, you actually learn more when you reflect on it. While it may sound a bit extreme, the words of John Dewey come to mind when he said, "We do not learn from experience...we learn from reflecting on experience."

Reflection automatically creates a story out of your own experience, making it easy for your brain to understand it. This is supported by various studies. In fact, this was pointed out in one of our previous tips that the brain lights up and gets pumped up when we tell or listen to good stories. Researchers in Spain found out that compared to a plain, straight-laced, bullet-point presentation, using a story in presentations activates more areas of the brain. Multiple sections of the subjects' brains were lighting up as though they were experiencing the story in real life!

One compelling reason I love reflection is the joy I experience when I am in a reflective mode. It's a time when things seem to coalesce and become clearer. This excites me to take action. 

The Importance of Journal Keeping

Journaling is key to my reflection. I write my thoughts in all sorts of places and sometimes, I forget where I wrote them. I have a Moleskine - but I don't keep one. Then I also jot down notes in Evernote and discussion rooms and mostly on the wall.

So, I begin to suspect that journaling may have very little to do with writing and going back to your notes. Rather, it frees my mind to continue reflecting.

I am guilty of being so disorganized - but I am good at  getting the most out of my reflections. Here are some advantages that I discovered about journaling.

It forces you to reflect on the day's event and put it in writing. This "hard copy" of the day's experience preserves the learning that has taken place and saving it from our
fickle memories.

Journal entries make you more aware of the learning that has taken place. Not only  that, it also makes you cognizant about the kind of learning that has happened.

Journaling aids you in the knowledge construction since it helps you relate prior
knowledge to new information. It's like adding new bricks on top of old ones that are already well connected together.

Reflection as a Learning Tool

The gift of reflection is an indispensable learning tool. People from all walks of life; young and old, educated or not, use reflection to make sense of the environment in which we live in and we do it without even being aware of it. It is an automatic tool that the brain uses to make sense of experience.

The process of reflection is both a conscious and subconscious act on our part and we use it to gain more insight into our daily lives. Without this ability, we can all say goodbye to in-depth learning because it just can't happen. Reflection gives us the ability to drill that knowledge in!

Stand back and think of a situation. What have you learned? What new perspective have
you gained? Are you able to make sense of your experiences? Are you able to construct meaning and knowledge that guide actions in practice? All that is possible because of our
ability to reflect. 

Telling Stories as a Form of Reflection

One way to do reflection is to ask another person their own version of your own story or experience. This is how most of my deeper discoveries happen - by listening to others' stories and how they relate to mine.

In another tip, I mentioned about StoryCorps--the winner of the million-dollar TED Prize 2015. It is a company that is in the business of collecting stories. They would bring together people who know each other well and put them inside a recording booth for 40 minutes. For the allotted time, husband and wife, mother and son, father and daughter would have a real conversation which would dig deeper into the stories that they have inside.

3. Technologies that Help Enhance Reflection

I mentioned Evernote, right? Nowadays, we don't lack the tools that enhance reflection.

As a matter of fact, technology-facilitated learning is already mainstream. Companies and organizations are hard pressed in coming up with BYOD (Bring Your Own Devices) policies
so that workers can now freely bring with them their own devices. The same thing happens in the educational front. According to Katrina Strampel and Ron Oliver, "Instructors, therefore,are faced with two challenges: implementing technology and increasing reflective learning."

The reason behind this is that, technology enhances reflection and therefore, learning.

A few examples are:

Online forums
Digital storytelling

The Digital Storytelling Association provides the following definition of digital storytelling: it is the modern expression of the ancient art of storytelling. Digital stories derive their power by weaving images, music, narrative and voice together, thereby giving deep dimension and vivid color to characters, situations, experiences, and insights.

Centeredness of Self and Learning

What happens during reflection is allowing our minds to crystallize many of our ideas, experiences, discoveries, conflicts and gaps in knowledge into a discernable and understandable set of knowledge. I think that reflection is a precursor to learning and action.

I remember what Picasso said,


Alaa Sadik: Digital storytelling: a meaningful technology-integratedapproach for engaged student learning: 

Rachel Ong: The role of reflection in student learning: a study of its effectiveness in complementing problem-based learning environments:  

Helen Barrett and Jonathon Richter: Reflection4Learning:   

Ray Jimenez: Your Brain Prefers Interactive Stories: Not Lectures:     

Ray Jimenez: Is Your Organization Losing Its Brain? Collecting Stories to Transfer Knowledge:   

Katrina Strampel and Ron Oliver: Using Technology to Foster Reflection in Higher Education: School of Communications and Contemporary Arts, Edith Cowan University:  

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"

Sunday, October 4, 2015

Are Your Learners as Intelligent as They Can Be?

Research by Daniel M. Wegner and Adrian F. Ward featured in Scientific American asked people to rate how smart they felt (cognitive self-esteem) while using Google. The Googlers felt they were smarter (more intelligent) because they had access to the Internet.

"Some people feel more intelligent than others because they access the Internet for information."

Wegner and Ward says that "We are starting to know less but think we know more." They suggest that we are seeing people now who include Google as part of their cognitive tool set, even to the point they can't distinguish Googling something from actually knowing something. On the other hand, research has shown that using Google does not necessarily make us dumber, which we might think, but in fact smarter. Furthermore, intelligence is becoming less about memory and more about knowing how to access and connect external information.

The research of Wegner and Adrian, as well as the studies of Dr. Gary Small from University of California Los Angeles, Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior, made me ponder what impact their findings have on the way we design and deliver learning.

Intelligence - memorization, recall and application

We can define intelligence in many different ways, but our current definitions revolve around people's abilities to store, learn and apply information and knowledge. It appears that the focus is on people's capacities and less on the tools they use. There is a presumption that we only use tools to do work. And, yet, it is a common experience to see people do tasks better, faster and with higher quality because of the tools they use.

Are people more intelligent because they have memorized how a word is spelled, or if they know how to find the word's definition in (or even ask someone), or is it both?

Internet as brain's external drive; all knowing brain

We create tools, and tools recreate us, states John Seely Brown. Betsy Sparrow says, "We think of the Internet first when faced with a difficult problem." And Wegner says, "The Internet has become the external drive for our memories."

In most of our learning, training and elearning design and delivery, we focus on the efficiencies (lots of content) and scale (rapid and fast delivery) of retention and memory, and application of the knowledge acquired. I suspect, however, that we have missed helping learners to be "smarter" (extending intelligence) by not expanding their skills and knowledge for using the Internet or in-house networks and tools to find additional, supplementary, current, updated or other knowledge related to the learning topic. While these may be related to the subject, we are unable to include them in our design. If we are missing this opportunity, what do we do?

I must mention here that there are researchers, such as Val Hooper and Channa Herath,Sherry Turkle and others, who raise concerns about the impact of the Internet on our ability to concentrate, and that we may be losing meaningful relationships. Additionally, thought leaders Jane Bozarth, Clark Quinn, George Siemens  and many others have been espousing open and networked learning environments.

Extending intelligence of learners and workers

For most of us in the trenches, there are incremental, as well as big and bold steps we can take to extend the hard drives of learners' brains. 

1. Unique Content VS. Open Content

Review the nature and scope of your content. What content do you have to provide because your lesson is the only source of that knowledge? Separate this from the content that is available through other sources. For example: If you are explaining a technical setting of a valve specific to your particular conditions, this might be content so unique you must develop and present it. On the other hand, other related content might be available from suppliers, reference guides and documentation, reported cases, experiences, etc. It might be best for learners to discover and acquire this content through your internal networks or on the Internet. Simply point them to where it's already available.

A similar situation is possible in compliance learning. You need to develop your own lessons around the unique requirements of your policies and procedures. However, references to policies and procedures are usually published on HR websites. Legal rulings and legislative guidelines are provided on government agencies' websites. Why duplicate it? 

 2. Frictionless Learning and Work Environment 

Helping learners to expand their brains' hard drives also requires that our learning environment be frictionless. This means we don't put up barriers or speed bumps to quick learning and finding answers while doing work. These barriers may take the form of a forced sequence of lessons, big lessons (more than 3 minutes), inter-dependent lessons, one-time sitting learning, knowledge checks and testing. Many argue that these traditional tasks are necessary for effective learning. Moreover, training departments feel they need a way of controlling the learning process. These very notions are often the cause of friction, slowness and the unresponsiveness of many learning programs. Furthermore, these are also the key causes of boredom, disengagement and low completion rate of lessons.

How do we remove the friction? Create small bites and micro-learning. Make it so small that even if you add a knowledge check, it is painless. Make the small bites learning independent units so they are fluid, like water, and can flow between work and learning and around the lives of the learner/worker.

3. Bringing Back Experience (Brain's Hard Drive)

In the typical lesson-learning mode, learners learn concepts or knowledge away from the real world. With open learning that searches, discovers, finds and connects with others online, we increase learners' ability to gain experience surrounding the knowledge. Connecting outward accelerates their understanding of the lessons. To expand the brain's hard drive even further, we ask learners to document, journal, share and post their discoveries back to the lessons. Incorporate the consistent practice of asking learners to post, comment and share their experiences. 

The Learners Still Control the Brain 

Finally, although our reference to the brain's hard drive might seem to be located out on the Internet, the learning process is actually right inside the learner's brain. The learner is still in control of what to learn, discover, apply and to use for success on the job. The hard drive is only a storage device, and until that storage can do the thinking for the learner, let's keep doing better in our design to adapt to these new tools.

Make your design and delivery even more an environment for learners to be smarter.

Let's help them to be smarter. And if using the Internet makes them smarter, let's incorporate it! 


Here are some studies in recent years that discuss how the Internet (represented by Google) is changing the way people think:

Nicholas Carr, 2008 : Is Google making us stupid? The use of Google affects how we think, making us reliant on synthetic information rather than on our own concentration and critical thinking.

UCLA Study, 2008: Google (and by extension of the Internet) activates more brain areas in people who are comfortable with computer use. Compared to straightforward reading (as with books or magazines) reading through the Internet requires decision-making and judgment (for example when choosing among search results for relevance).

Sparrow, Loi, Wegner, 2011: "1) We think of the Internet first when faced with a difficult problem 2) we are less likely to remember something if we believe we can look it up online later, but 3) we are more likely to remember where to find the information (but not the information itself) if we believe it is saved somewhere." The latter is called transactive memory and considers the Internet as an extension of a person's knowledge.

Wegner 2013: Knowing where to find information is becoming more important than actually knowing it. We think we know more when in reality, we know less.

Hooper and Herath, 2014: Reliance on online sources has negative effects on concentration, comprehension, absorption and recall.

Ray Jimenez, PhD
Vignettes Learning
"Helping Learners Learn Their Way"